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The initial step in mutational breeding is to recognize or identify the appropriate varieties containing the suitable genes which donot exist in nature. In nature, the existing varieties which are found to undergo variation are as a result of mutation. This review paper is mainly focused on the several types of mutagens and improvement of common tropical and temperate region crops through induced mutation especially physical and chemical mutagens. The crops include the commonly existing plants which provide higher yield with abundant nutritional value, or applied as a remedy for ailments or diseases. An assessment has been conducted on several types of physical as well as chemical mutagens on tissue cultured explants to have a peer insight into the screened genotypes providing better agronomic behavior. Different detection techniques like RAPD, cell viability assays, flame photometry for identifying mutation in the genotypes have been integrated in this study with an objective to aid a researcher in identifying the correct approach of mutational breeding for further crop improvement studies

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